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Toxicological Review of Chloroform

By Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A., Ph. D.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000075822
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.3 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007

Title: Toxicological Review of Chloroform  
Author: Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A., Ph. D.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

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Crisp, Ph. D, P. F. (n.d.). Toxicological Review of Chloroform. Retrieved from http://admin.worldlibrary.net/


Description
Excerpt: In October 1999 the Chloroform Risk Assessment Review Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board met to consider the Office of Science and Technology health assessment of chloroform. Summaries of the major parts of the subcommittee’s advice and our responses follow. The documents reviewed were a final hazard and dose-response characterization document and a draft mode-of-action framework analysis. 1. The subcommittee agreed with EPA that sustained or repeated cytotoxicity with secondary regenerative hyperplasia in the liver and/or the kidney of rats and mice precedes, and is probably a causal factor for, hepatic and renal neoplasia. Some members of the subcommittee were concerned about possible mutagenic activity, and the subcommittee recommended that the risk assessment further address the possible role of mutagenicity as a mode of action.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CHLOROFORM (CAS No. 67-66-3) LIST OF TABLES ..........................................................v LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................... v ACRONYM LIST.......................................................... vi FOREWORD .............................................................vii AUTHORS, CONTRIBUTORS, AND REVIEWERS.............................. viii SUMMARY OF SCIENCE ADVISORY BOARD RECOMMENDATIONS AND EPA RESPONSES........................................................ xi 1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................1 2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION ................................2 3. TOXICOKINETICS.......................................................2 3.1. ABSORPTION .................................................2 3.2. DISTRIBUTION ................................................3 3.3. METABOLISM .................................................3 3.3.1. Oxidative and Reductive Pathways .............................3 3.3.2. Fate of Reactive Metabolites ..................................4 3.3.3. Relative Importance of Oxidative and Reductive Pathways ........... 6 3.4. EXCRETION...................................................6 3.5. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELS ... 6 4. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION ...............................................9 4.1. STUDIES IN HUMANS ..........................................9 4.1.1. Inhalation Studies in the Workplace ............................9 4.1.2. Exposure to Chloroform in Drinking Water......................10 4.2. PRECHRONIC AND CHRONIC STUDIES AND CANCER BIOASSAYS IN ANIMALS .................................................11 4.2.1. Oral Studies .............................................11 4.2.2. Inhalation Studies .........................................18 4.3. REPRODUCTIVE/DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES ....................21 4.3.1. Oral Studies .............................................21 4.3.2. Inhalation Studies .........................................24 4.4. OTHER STUDIES..............................................26 4.4.1. Other Effects ............................................26 4.4.2. Mutagenicity.............................................27 4.4.3. Studies Related to Mode of Action ............................31

 

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